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Read about Jay Rosen's book, What Are Journalists For?

Excerpt from Chapter One of What Are Journalists For? "As Democracy Goes, So Goes the Press."

Essay in Columbia Journalism Review on the changing terms of authority in the press, brought on in part by the blog's individual--and interactive--style of journalism. It argues that, after Jayson Blair, authority is not the same at the New York Times, either.

"Web Users Open the Gates." My take on ten years of Internet journalism, at

Read: Q & As

Jay Rosen, interviewed about his work and ideas by journalist Richard Poynder

Achtung! Interview in German with a leading German newspaper about the future of newspapers and the Net.

Audio: Have a Listen

Listen to an audio interview with Jay Rosen conducted by journalist Christopher Lydon, October 2003. It's about the transformation of the journalism world by the Web.

Five years later, Chris Lydon interviews Jay Rosen again on "the transformation." (March 2008, 71 minutes.)

Interview with host Brooke Gladstone on NPR's "On the Media." (Dec. 2003) Listen here.

Presentation to the Berkman Center at Harvard University on open source journalism and NewAssignment.Net. Downloadable mp3, 70 minutes, with Q and A. Nov. 2006.

Video: Have A Look

Half hour video interview with Robert Mills of the American Microphone series. On blogging, journalism, NewAssignment.Net and distributed reporting.

Jay Rosen explains the Web's "ethic of the link" in this four-minute YouTube clip.

"The Web is people." Jay Rosen speaking on the origins of the World Wide Web. (2:38)

One hour video Q & A on why the press is "between business models" (June 2008)

Recommended by PressThink:

Town square for press critics, industry observers, and participants in the news machine: Romenesko, published by the Poynter Institute.

Town square for weblogs: InstaPundit from Glenn Reynolds, who is an original. Very busy. Very good. To the Right, but not in all things. A good place to find voices in diaolgue with each other and the news.

Town square for the online Left. The Daily Kos. Huge traffic. The comments section can be highly informative. One of the most successful communities on the Net.

Rants, links, blog news, and breaking wisdom from Jeff Jarvis, former editor, magazine launcher, TV critic, now a J-professor at CUNY. Always on top of new media things. Prolific, fast, frequently dead on, and a pal of mine.

Eschaton by Atrios (pen name of Duncan B;ack) is one of the most well established political weblogs, with big traffic and very active comment threads. Left-liberal.

Terry Teachout is a cultural critic coming from the Right at his weblog, About Last Night. Elegantly written and designed. Plus he has lots to say about art and culture today.

Dave Winer is the software wiz who wrote the program that created the modern weblog. He's also one of the best practicioners of the form. Scripting News is said to be the oldest living weblog. Read it over time and find out why it's one of the best.

If someone were to ask me, "what's the right way to do a weblog?" I would point them to Doc Searls, a tech writer and sage who has been doing it right for a long time.

Ed Cone writes one of the most useful weblogs by a journalist. He keeps track of the Internet's influence on politics, as well developments in his native North Carolina. Always on top of things.

Rebecca's Pocket by Rebecca Blood is a weblog by an exemplary practitioner of the form, who has also written some critically important essays on its history and development, and a handbook on how to blog.

Dan Gillmor used to be the tech columnist and blogger for the San Jose Mercury News. He now heads a center for citizen media. This is his blog about it.

A former senior editor at Pantheon, Tom Englehardt solicits and edits commentary pieces that he publishes in blog form at TomDispatches. High-quality political writing and cultural analysis.

Chris Nolan's Spot On is political writing at a high level from Nolan and her band of left-to-right contributors. Her notion of blogger as a "stand alone journalist" is a key concept; and Nolan is an exemplar of it.

Barista of Bloomfield Avenue is journalist Debbie Galant's nifty experiment in hyper-local blogging in several New Jersey towns. Hers is one to watch if there's to be a future for the weblog as news medium.

The Editor's Log, by John Robinson, is the only real life honest-to-goodness weblog by a newspaper's top editor. Robinson is the blogging boss of the Greensboro News-Record and he knows what he's doing.

Fishbowl DC is about the world of Washington journalism. Gossip, controversies, rituals, personalities-- and criticism. Good way to keep track of the press tribe in DC

PJ Net Today is written by Leonard Witt and colleagues. It's the weblog of the Public Journalisn Network (I am a founding member of that group) and it follows developments in citizen-centered journalism.

Here's Simon Waldman's blog. He's the Director of Digital Publishing for The Guardian in the UK, the world's most Web-savvy newspaper. What he says counts.

Novelist, columnist, NPR commentator, Iraq War vet, Colonel in the Army Reserve, with a PhD in literature. How many bloggers are there like that? One: Austin Bay.

Betsy Newmark's weblog she describes as "comments and Links from a history and civics teacher in Raleigh, NC." An intelligent and newsy guide to blogs on the Right side of the sphere. I go there to get links and comment, like the teacher said.

Rhetoric is language working to persuade. Professor Andrew Cline's Rhetorica shows what a good lens this is on politics and the press.

Davos Newbies is a "year-round Davos of the mind," written from London by Lance Knobel. He has a cosmopolitan sensibility and a sharp eye for things on the Web that are just... interesting. This is the hardest kind of weblog to do well. Knobel does it well.

Susan Crawford, a law professor, writes about democracy, technology, intellectual property and the law. She has an elegant weblog about those themes.

Kevin Roderick's LA Observed is everything a weblog about the local scene should be. And there's a lot to observe in Los Angeles.

Joe Gandelman's The Moderate Voice is by a political independent with an irrevant style and great journalistic instincts. A link-filled and consistently interesting group blog.

Ryan Sholin's Invisible Inkling is about the future of newspapers, online news and journalism education. He's the founder of and a self-taught Web developer and designer.

H20town by Lisa Williams is about the life and times of Watertown, Massachusetts, and it covers that town better than any local newspaper. Williams is funny, she has style, and she loves her town.

Dan Froomkin's White House Briefing at is a daily review of the best reporting and commentary on the presidency. Read it daily and you'll be extremely well informed.

Rebecca MacKinnon, former correspondent for CNN, has immersed herself in the world of new media and she's seen the light (great linker too.)

Micro Persuasion is Steve Rubel's weblog. It's about how blogs and participatory journalism are changing the business of persuasion. Rubel always has the latest study or article.

Susan Mernit's blog is "writing and news about digital media, ecommerce, social networks, blogs, search, online classifieds, publishing and pop culture from a consultant, writer, and sometime entrepeneur." Connected.

Group Blogs

CJR Daily is Columbia Journalism Review's weblog about the press and its problems, edited by Steve Lovelady, formerly of the Philadelpia Inquirer.

Lost Remote is a very newsy weblog about television and its future, founded by Cory Bergman, executive producer at KING-TV in Seattle. Truly on top of things, with many short posts a day that take an inside look at the industry.

Editors Weblog is from the World Editors Fourm, an international group of newspaper editors. It's about trends and challenges facing editors worldwide. keeps track of developments from the British side of the Atlantic. Very strong on online journalism.

Digests & Round-ups:

Memeorandum: Single best way I know of to keep track of both the news and the political blogosphere. Top news stories and posts that people are blogging about, automatically updated.

Daily Briefing: A categorized digest of press news from the Project on Excellence in Journalism.

Press Notes is a round-up of today's top press stories from the Society of Professional Journalists.

Richard Prince does a link-rich thrice-weekly digest called "Journalisms" (plural), sponsored by the Maynard Institute, which believes in pluralism in the press.

Newsblog is a daily digest from Online Journalism Review.

E-Media Tidbits from the Poynter Institute is group blog by some of the sharper writers about online journalism and publishing. A good way to keep up

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May 6, 2008

Looking for the Mouse in Media: Clay Shirky on Deploying the Cognitive Surplus for Public Good

"The imagery is geological: the release of trapped deposits. He thinks we can reverse the time sink for people once marooned on the receiving end of a one-way system that didn’t care what you thought or brought to it, since it couldn’t afford the costs of interacting with you."

Ever wondered: where’s the time going to come from for all these nifty open source ventures that people are planning? Well, Clay Shirky says we got plenty. He just gave an extremely useful and imaginative speech to Web heads about where we are in media time.

Shirky, who teaches at NYU but in a different program, has a new book out: Here Comes Everybody (“The Power of Organizing Without Organizations.”) This speech stands alone. You can read it here, but you should really watch him here— after absorbing this post. The clip is less than 15 minutes. It lets you think along with Shirky as he explains “the cognitive surplus” we developed during the age of TV.

This is a huge deposit of waking hours lived in front of the tube, a vast expanse of free time occupied for 40 years by commercial television. We’re at least starting to find the architecture of participation (Tim O’Reilly’s phrase) that would turn some of those couch-born hours into sentient activity, followed naturally by inter-activity, as in massively multiplayer games, which can lead (for some) to public works and social goods, as with “the online encyclopedia anyone can edit.”

The imagery is geological: the release of trapped deposits. He thinks we can reverse the time sink for people once marooned on the receiving end of a one-way system that didn’t care what you thought or brought to it, since it couldn’t afford the costs of interacting with you. I was one of those people—1964 to 1974 were my wasted years—and Clay says he was one. We both watched Gilligan’s Island and tried to decide who was cuter: Ginger or Mary Ann.

So I took his talk very personally. I would love to have those hours back for something a little more constructive. But where does that love go?

One place it’s gone is into making certain that my daughter, Sylvie, doesn’t get marooned. I’m glad she has her own blog with her friend Julia Jarvis. (They’re both fifth graders and their site is about American Girl dolls.) She has a foothold on the producer side of the transaction, and understands the Web as an author’s medium.

A cognitive surplus means the total amount of unoccupied free time available (think of it as “screen hours”) after the basic needs of society have been met. Television swallowed up most of the surplus American society produced during the period of relative affluence after World War Two.

Clay figures it took 100 million hours of people around the world writing, checking, editing, gathering, and talking it over (and fighting!) to make all versions of Wikipedia. “And television watching? Two hundred billion hours, in the U.S. alone, every year.” Therefore if 99 percent of the TV watching in the US remained as is, and we broke off just one percent for the information commons and other cool stuff we could have 100 Wikipedia-class projects per year.

What we need are lots and lots of different projects that try to deploy this surplus— and “fail informatively.” So the kid in the basement, the developers at the Web 2.0 conference, the Knight Challenge winners and others with new media ambitions should go forward with their best ideas. Because….

Someone working alone, with really cheap tools, has a reasonable hope of carving out enough of the cognitive surplus, enough of the desire to participate, enough of the collective goodwill of the citizens, to create a resource you couldn’t have imagined existing even five years ago.

Let’s summarize:

Q. Where do people get the hours to participate?

A. From the de-commercialization of their time!

Q. Yeah, but people like to consume their media. Sometimes they just want to sit there… Right?

A. Right! They also want to produce (sometimes) and share what they made (some of those times). They want to be audience, producer, distributor… at different times. Deal with it or die!

They also expect to operate their media. At least more and more of them do. Clay illustrates this beautifully with a story about a four year-old girl who wanders around behind the DVD player as its playing her show. When her parents ask her what she’s doing, she pokes her head out and says, “I’m looking for the mouse.”

I heard that and thought: Yes. That’s what I’ve been doing for maybe 20 years or so. Looking for the mouse in American journalism. And many other people have been seeking the same thing in their separate but interrelated domains.

To the really young people—Sylvie’s generation—any device that ships without a mouse is “broken.” It happened a long time ago, of course, but the modern professionalized press, producing the journalism that’s called mainstream now, shipped without a mouse back then because it was built for overlay on a broadcast—one-to-many—system.

“We’re going to look at every place that a reader or a listener or a viewer or a user has been locked out, has been served up passive or a fixed or a canned experience.” Dig: Those are the trapped deposits. Watch Shirky explain them… and then get to work! My favorite moment, because it was the most personal: Clay’s wicked response to the television reporter who asked… “where do people find the time?”

* * *

After Matter: Notes, reactions & links…

Jeff Jarvis at Buzzmachine writes about what the girls—my daughter and his daughter—are doing:

Lately, I’ve been thinking a great deal about how the connections and collaboration the internet enables change — improve, I say — the nature of friendship in profound ways that will, in turn, change society in unseen ways. Yesterday, I wrote about ambient intimacy, that is, our ability to stay in touch with the little details of friends’ lives. I’ve argued that the permanence of connections enabled by Facebook links and Google search alters our relationships; this is on my mind because I’m about to write that chapter in my book and because I’m going to see an old friend thanks to Google later this week.

Now add one more dimension: creation as an act of friendship, collaboration as a means of staying in touch, media as a social act. That is what is happening in the American Girl blog: Julia and Sylvie can share by creating. Play is social. Media is play. Social media is fun…

Sylvie and Julia are just doing what comes naturally — they’re having fun together. And so I’m sure both of them with will roll their eyes at their crazy dads for blathering on about it here and there and not understanding the point, for making it sound boring, for taking the fun out of it.

I can say with some confidence that Sylvie thinks being mentioned in PressThink is fun. But she can probably think of tons of things that are more fun.

Some of what Jeff says in his post is also covered in this short video clip of me explaining The Ethic of the Link and the Rise of the Web.

Luigi Montanez at Tech President, Political Implications of the Cognitive Surplus.

Meanwhile, Adrian Monck has a different view:

Is online activity any more worthwhile than watching half an hour of the Phil Silvers Show? Or any more worthwhile than sitting in an audience whilst Shirky is speaking?

Is Shirky saying there is a problem with spectating and entertainment?

Well say it then! And give us some evidence - not just some flashy but superficial historical analogies, some geek-speak and a little Nike philosophy of the Just Do It school.

(Did I say I didn’t like this essay, by the way?)

On whether online activity is any more worthwhile than watching half an hour of the Phil Silvers Show, I would say yes, definitely. Shirky says activity is better than inactivity. And: “However lousy it is to sit in your basement and pretend to be an elf, I can tell you from personal experience it’s worse to sit in your basement and try to figure if Ginger or Mary Ann is cuter.”

Bill Kinnon took my 2006 post, The People Formerly Known as the Audience, and wrote The People Formerly Known as the Congregation, which he says is his blog’s most popular entry ever. Commenting on this post, Kinnon observes “what Shirky says is critically important for the church.”

This was cross posted at Idea Lab.

Posted by Jay Rosen at May 6, 2008 10:15 PM   Print


@Someone working alone, with really cheap tools, has a reasonable hope of carving out enough of the cognitive surplus ... to create a resource you couldn’t have imagined existing even five years ago.@

Put another way, this is about priorities, and specifically about the priority we place on our most important resource: Time.

This is the argument I (and many others) used to (and still) make about how journalism institutions could reinvent themselves -- reprioritizing and redeploying their (shrinking) resources to tasks that create new futures vs. devoting them to failed efforts to sustain a traditional past.

For people like me -- refugees from the walled cities of newsrooms who are growing our own media in the fields of independent creativity (formerly known as freelancing) -- Shirky's argument holds especially true.

I have been amazed at how much I can get done when I am not actually working FOR somebody vs. working AT something. Of course, the rent must be paid, so I seek and do projects that don't hit my creative sweet spot, but that comes with the turf.

The phrase, Physician, heal thyself, comes to mind in these conversations. Journalist, reinvent thyself.

Posted by: Tim Porter at May 7, 2008 11:04 AM | Permalink

hello, how can i translete this into spanish?

Posted by: jD at May 7, 2008 3:53 PM | Permalink

Sylvia's blog is so cool. I loved her post questioning the value of a $10 hair salon trip or a $325 doll trunk. I liked the idea she was already questioning the innate purpose of branded products.

Posted by: NewsCat at May 9, 2008 1:41 PM | Permalink

Thanks, Cat. I just showed her your comment and she beamed.

Posted by: Jay Rosen at May 10, 2008 1:14 PM | Permalink

The problem that I have with Shirky's thesis (at least as far as I can understand it) is the underlying assumption that the cream will rise to the top.

But I think its pretty clear that this is not the case. You can spend time producing good information that goes nowhere -- or spend time producing stuff like the Kantor "ratf**k" video that goes viral, because the gatekeepers will continue to control the distribution of information.

Information without distribution is just noise. Creating new information without access to distribution may as well be sitting in their basement, obsessing over the question of "Ginger or MaryAnn".

The problem with Shirky's thesis can be found here.... Someone working alone, with really cheap tools, has a reasonable hope of carving out enough of the cognitive surplus

No, they don't have a reasonable hope of doing so, because the gatekeepers will always control the dissemination of what is produced, and if the product does not conform to the biases of the gatekeepers, it will be ignored, or derided, or (at best) restricted to a very small group of dissenters from conventional wisdom.

Posted by: p.lukasiak at May 13, 2008 9:10 AM | Permalink

Man when you guys get on your realist horse you ride the Web hard. In a way I admire the severity of it. Not even a reasonable hope of success on the information commons, huh? No reasonable hope is born on these plains? You are here not only to dim to darkness the likelihood of their success (I would be with you on that) but also to extinguish the hope of one?

Posted by: Jay Rosen at May 14, 2008 1:10 PM | Permalink

The problem that I have with Shirky's thesis (at least as far as I can understand it) is the underlying assumption that the cream will rise to the top... You can spend time producing good information that goes nowhere...

Someone wrote a good piece a couple years ago on power laws and blogs. People tend to stick to what they know, which disincentivizes new content producers, because they think their material won't be discovered and read, or earn them any payoff. I think the trick is to create something that makes the "long tail" (sorry, hackneyed phrase by now) of written material visible in some useful way. Shirky had some things to say about this in a recent bloggingheads episode...

Tools like Digg try to help with this sort of thing. But I'm genuinely surprised that no one's come up with something better.

Posted by: JJWFromME at May 15, 2008 3:25 PM | Permalink

I find the whole idea that the Internet has a "top," or that someone/something occupies it, seriously suspect.

I also find it suspect to imply that Shirky doesn't know about the Power Law.

Posted by: Tim at May 15, 2008 6:39 PM | Permalink

Yes. It's also much more motivating to work at something than for something. I get much more done.

Posted by: Nate Nead at May 19, 2008 3:34 PM | Permalink

From the Intro